Here lies all our published research projects. Click on the publication title to be directed to the full publication.
Attitude toward rehabilitation as a key predictor for adopting alternative identities in deradicalization programs: An investigation of terrorist detainees’ profiles
Milla, M. N., Hudiyana, J., & Arifin, H. H. (2019). Attitude toward rehabilitation as a key predictor for adopting alternative identities in deradicalization programs: An investigation of terrorist detainees’ profiles. Asian Journal of Social Psychology.
Several studies have shed light on factors that contribute to radicalization. However, fewer studies have addressed the factors that contribute to deradicalization, especially with terrorist detainees as participants. The present study investigates the role of attitudes toward rehabilitation in deradicalization programs, and its role in predicting the outcome for these programs. We hypothesized that when terrorist detainees adopt alternative identities (identities alternative to their jihadist identity), their support for jihad as war will be lessened, even when they still hold jihadist ideology as their source of significance. To test this hypothesis, we obtained 89 interview profiles of actual terrorist detainees across 35 Indonesian prisons. We found that lesser support for jihad as war was predicted by a more positive attitude toward the deradicalization program, and this was mediated by the adoption of alternative identities. Further, the effect of the mediator on support for jihad as war was neither weakened nor strengthened by perceived significance of jihadist ideology. These findings suggest that even when a person possesses a strong ideological commitment to jihad, this may not manifest into violence when they adopt alternative identities and goals. These results were interpreted and discussed through goal systems theory and the multifinality account of radical behavior.
Milla, M. N., Putra, I. E., & Umam, A. N. (2019). Stories from jihadists: Significance, identity, and radicalization through the call for jihad. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 25(2), 111–121. https://doi.org/10.1037/pac0000371
The present study aims to explore how narratives, stories, and memories are planted in the Jihadists’ mind. In particular, the primary concern of this study is the interests of Indonesian Muslims to join Jihadist groups and their willingness to sacrifice possessions, families, and even lives. Five main informants who are members of Jihadi groups in Indonesia and 18 additional informants who have been linked with key informants participated in this study. The findings revealed the motivation of personal significance through 4 steps of radicalization. We found that the narratives of the Jihadists were an expression of the self-worth that is motivated by the need to increase the quest for significance in God’s eyes. This study highlights the importance of alternatives to meaning in societies that are available and accessible by Jihadists to facilitate their reaching a self-fulfilled identity. This self-fulfillment may prevent the Jihadists from being manipulated by leaders from radical groups to perform a radical collective action.
Shadiqi, M. A., Muluk, H., Milla, M. N., Experiment Replication: A Proposed Solution for Developing Psychological Research in Indonesia. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal, [S.l.], v. 33, n. 4, mar. 2019. ISSN 2620-5963. https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v33i4.1795.
Is it possible that psychology can be a strong as natural science? Having replication studies could be the answer to this question. Philosophically, a replication is ‘the heart of any science,’ however it receives a little attention from social science. In Indonesia, there are three major problems: (1) only few number of researchers implement replication studies; (2) only few replication studies present strong evidence; and (3) only a small number of replication studies have been published. This might occur because the knowledge on how to conduct a replication study is inaccessible to most psychology researchers in Indonesia. This article explains a definition of a replication study, types of replications, and strategies to conduct replication experiments. I will explain how to conduct a replication study, starting from determining and reviewing reference articles to designing a replication study.
Insights from a deradicalization program in Indonesian prisons: The potential benefits of psychological intervention prior to ideological discussion
Muluk, H., Umam, A. N., & Milla, M. N. (2019). Insights from a deradicalization program in Indonesian prisons: The potential benefits of psychological intervention prior to ideological discussion. Asian Journal of Social Psychology.
Discussions that are based on religious understanding and aimed at reducing terrorists' hostility have been used as a central part of terrorist deradicalization programs in many countries where acts of Islamic terrorism are prevalent. Currently, various psychological approaches such as presenting social support and providing counseling sessions are being applied alongside religious discussions. Observers of these programs have reported benefits and positive responses to the psychological approaches, but there is still a lack of empirical evidence confirming this. In the current study, we examine the effects of two psychological interventions—emotional expression training and cognitive flexibility training—in predicting detainees’ acceptance of the idea of democratic life. We investigated the observational records taken during the psychological interventions and religious discussions. Results showed no main effect of emotional expression and cognitive flexibility in predicting one’s acceptance of democratic civil life, but there was a significant interaction between the two predictors. Among those who scored high in cognitive flexibility, detainees who scored also high in emotional expression were significantly more agreeable towards the state’s sovereignty over belief in an Islamic caliphate during religious discussions. Our findings suggest that psychological interventions do indeed offer benefits for detainees’ deradicalization programs.
The Protective Role of Friendship: Cross-group Friendship Mediates the Effect of Ideological Quest for Significance on Commitment to A Radical Group
Milla, M. N., & Hudiyana, J. (2019). The Protective Role of Friendship: Cross-group Friendship Mediates the Effect of Ideological Quest for Significance on Commitment to A Radical Group. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 2(2), 98-105.
On the basis of the Quest for Significance theory, a person’s sense of meaning and personal significance may be obtained from ideological narratives. The more a radical ideology gives a person a sense of meaning, the less likely it is that he or she will engage in interpersonal relations and friendships with out-group members. In this study, we hypothesized that ideological quest for significance would predict commitment to a radical group and that this association would be mediated through cross-group friendship. This research was based on interviews with 241 prisoners at 59 Indonesian prisons, who were serving sentences for terrorism offenses. Mediation analysis found that higher scores on ideological quest for significance significantly predicted lower scores on cross-group friendship, and lower scores on cross-group friendship significantly predicted higher scores on commitment to a radical group. There was a significant direct effect of ideological quest for significance on commitment to a radical group and a significant indirect effect using the bootstrapping method. This suggested that the effect of ideological quest for significance on commitment to a radical group was partially mediated by cross-group friendship.
MILLA, M. N., & UMAM, A. N. (2018). Understanding Intergroup Contact on Terrorist Prisoners in Indonesia. Learning From Violent Extremist Attacks: Behavioural Sciences Insights For Practitioners And Policymakers, 259.
How can we disengage someone from his or her terrorist group? To answer this question, it is necessary to understand the underlying context of terrorism. The lack of empirical data in the literature has been a major problem in understanding the issue. This problem remains unsolved due to the covert nature of terrorist activities and national security concerns that prevent academics from mapping out the problem. Additionally, strict prison security procedures limit interaction with terrorist prisoners, which is considered a potential.
The end justifies the terrorist means: Consequentialist moral processing, involvement in religious organisations, and support for terrorism
Hudiyana, J., Muluk, H., Milla, M. N., & Shadiqi, M. A. (2018). The end justifies the terrorist means: Consequentialist moral processing, involvement in religious organisations, and support for terrorism. Diversity in Unity: Perspectives from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences.
Terrorism is an act aimed at achieving a desired end. Terrorist supporters may justify terrorism as a moral act with certain goals, such as defending their religion. Here, we propose that a preference for consequentialist morality (a moral tendency to prioritise consequences) predicts support for terrorism. A total of 453 Indonesian Muslims participated in the survey. It was found that a higher adherence to consequentialist moral processing is positively associated with support for Islamic terrorists. This relationship is stronger in those affiliated with religious organisations. The discussion focuses on how consequentialist moral thinking is associated with terrorism support and how religious organisations may shape support for terrorism.
The need for cognitive closure and belief in conspiracy theories: An exploration of the role of religious fundamentalism in cognition
Umam, A. N., Muluk, H., & Milla, M. N. (2018). The need for cognitive closure and belief in conspiracy theories: An exploration of the role of religious fundamentalism in cognition. Diversity in Unity: Perspectives from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 629-637.
Latest research shows that belief in conspiracy theories as an ideological trait is manifested in both the Need For Closure (NFC) and religious fundamentalism. There are some indications that the need for closure and religious fundamentalism interact in predicting certain ideological traits. This research aims to explore the interaction between NFC and fundamentalism in predicting one’s belief in conspiracy theories. By gathering data from 211 participants, the results show that NFC can predict the extent of people’s belief in conspiracy theory but only in control of information conspiracy theme, a conspiracy notion that says there is a scheme to conceal important information from public. There is no interaction between NFC and fundamentalism in predicting belief in conspiracy theories. The findings of this research theoretically contribute to the role of NFC in the manifestation of cognitive traits.
Palestinian solidarity action: The dynamics of politicized and religious identity patterns among student activists
Shadiqi, M. A., Muluk, H., & Milla, M. N. (2018). Palestinian solidarity action: The dynamics of politicized and religious identity patterns among student activists. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 22(2), 118-128.
This study attempted to explain the factors that lead Muslim student activists to participate in Palestinian solidarity actions by testing the Social Identity Model Collective Action model (SIMCA, van Zomeren, Postmes, & Spears, 2008). A survey of 303 student members/administrators of Islamic organizations was conducted. The sample was obtained from more than seven Islamic-based student organizations. Collective solidarity actions were comprised of peaceful actions such as demonstrations, protests, and petition signings. The model involved two identities (politicized and religious) and two mediators (group efficacy and group-based anger). Results of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis suggest that politicized identity, as indicated by strength of participants’ affiliations with Islamic movement organizations, predicts solidarity action intention more effectively than religious identity. Other study findings demonstrated that group efficacy is a significant partial mediator of the interaction between politicized and religious identities, and collective action. Religious identity has a stronger interaction with collective action than politicized identity within the partial mediating effect of group efficacy. Meanwhile group-based anger does not influence the desire to engage in collective action either directly or as a mediator.
University of Indonesia
Jl. Lkr. Kampus Raya Jl. Mawar No.5 3 8,
Pondok Cina, Kecamatan Beji, Kota Depok,
Jawa Barat 16424 Indonesia